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Record Information
Version1.0
Creation Date2016-09-30 22:20:16 UTC
Update Date2020-05-21 16:28:23 UTC
MCDB ID BMDB0000156
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • BMDB00156
Metabolite Identification
Common NameL-Malic acid
Description(S)-Malic acid, also known as malate or L-apple acid, belongs to the class of organic compounds known as beta hydroxy acids and derivatives. Beta hydroxy acids and derivatives are compounds containing a carboxylic acid substituted with a hydroxyl group on the C3 carbon atom (S)-Malic acid exists as a solid, possibly soluble (in water), and an extremely weak basic (essentially neutral) compound (based on its pKa) molecule (S)-Malic acid exists in all eukaryotes, ranging from yeast to humans.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
(-)-L-Malic acidChEBI
(S)-(-)-Hydroxysuccinic acidChEBI
L-2-Hydroxybutanedioic acidChEBI
L-Apple acidChEBI
MalateChEBI
Malic acidChEBI
S-2-Hydroxybutanedioic acidChEBI
L-MalateKegg
(-)-L-MalateGenerator
(S)-(-)-HydroxysuccinateGenerator
L-2-HydroxybutanedioateGenerator
S-2-HydroxybutanedioateGenerator
(-)-(S)-MalateHMDB
(-)-(S)-Malic acidHMDB
(-)-HydroxysuccinateHMDB
(-)-Hydroxysuccinic acidHMDB
(-)-Malic acidHMDB
(2S)-2-HydroxybutanedioateHMDB
(2S)-2-Hydroxybutanedioic acidHMDB
(S)-Hydroxy-butanedioateHMDB
(S)-Hydroxy-butanedioic acidHMDB
(S)-HydroxybutanedioateHMDB
(S)-Hydroxybutanedioic acidHMDB
(S)-Malic acidHMDB
Apple acidHMDB
L-(-)-Malic acidHMDB
L-HydroxybutanedioateHMDB
L-Hydroxybutanedioic acidHMDB
L-HydroxysuccinateHMDB
L-Hydroxysuccinic acidHMDB
S-(-)-MalateHMDB
S-(-)-Malic acidHMDB
(S)-MalateHMDB
L-Malic acidChEBI
(2S)-2-Hydroxysuccinic acidHMDB
(2S)-Malic acidHMDB
(S)-2-Hydroxysuccinic acidHMDB
2-Hydroxybutanedioic acidHMDB
2-Hydroxyethane-1,2-dicarboxylic acidHMDB
2-Hydroxysuccinic acidHMDB
Deoxytetraric acidHMDB
Hydroxybutanedioic acidHMDB
Hydroxysuccinic acidHMDB
Monohydroxybutanedioic acidHMDB
alpha-Hydroxysuccinic acidHMDB
α-Hydroxysuccinic acidHMDB
Chemical FormulaC4H6O5
Average Molecular Weight134.0874
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight134.021523302
IUPAC Name(2S)-2-hydroxybutanedioic acid
Traditional Name(-)-malic acid
CAS Registry Number97-67-6
SMILES
O[C@@H](CC(O)=O)C(O)=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C4H6O5/c5-2(4(8)9)1-3(6)7/h2,5H,1H2,(H,6,7)(H,8,9)/t2-/m0/s1
InChI KeyBJEPYKJPYRNKOW-REOHCLBHSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as beta hydroxy acids and derivatives. Beta hydroxy acids and derivatives are compounds containing a carboxylic acid substituted with a hydroxyl group on the C3 carbon atom.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassHydroxy acids and derivatives
Sub ClassBeta hydroxy acids and derivatives
Direct ParentBeta hydroxy acids and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Short-chain hydroxy acid
  • Beta-hydroxy acid
  • Fatty acid
  • Dicarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Alpha-hydroxy acid
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Alcohol
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point107 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP-0.87ALOGPS
logP-1.1ChemAxon
logS0.21ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)3.2ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-3.9ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count5ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area94.83 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity24.88 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability10.93 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)splash10-000t-0940000000-142d6f5fc2efbf0d5109JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)splash10-0002-0920000000-505483ce10ee3c4c9d20JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)splash10-00di-9710000000-8f263d045d715ae9fe2bJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-000t-0940000000-142d6f5fc2efbf0d5109JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0002-0920000000-505483ce10ee3c4c9d20JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-00di-9710000000-8f263d045d715ae9fe2bJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0002-0910000000-fadd80af55894555ea72JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0006-9100000000-aba7652c885a434930efJSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (3 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-02j9-7191000000-b78c78194b39deee0ca4JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-000i-9300000000-acd7d0159b8bb70b80fdJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0096-9000000000-7359292556d9d393d8f4JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0097-9000000000-a111335688b3219c1fc1JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-00lr-0942120000-9504700a82dcf5dc3adbJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-0a4i-0900000000-45e58d8a75d957cc5c41JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-03di-0900000000-4ec56105367de7bf0027JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Negativesplash10-001i-0900000000-1decf12f117200e0f28dJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Negativesplash10-03di-4900000000-86fd329658581c81c0ecJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Negativesplash10-00di-9100000000-82ffef2aa053f77cdbc5JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Negativesplash10-00di-9000000000-424bd54bc81a9db65a55JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Negativesplash10-0006-9000000000-a916941735427ee3c48dJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-001i-0900000000-1decf12f117200e0f28dJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-03di-4900000000-86fd329658581c81c0ecJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-00di-9100000000-82ffef2aa053f77cdbc5JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-00di-9000000000-424bd54bc81a9db65a55JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-0006-9000000000-a916941735427ee3c48dJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativesplash10-03di-0900000000-afdfdad3edeeb90cb3e4JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - , negativesplash10-01b9-4900000000-01b3a756de8f5a3ae6deJSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-00kr-7900000000-2a07c36db6acea9015afJSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-00rj-9200000000-316c7803efd1dfb76523JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-00dl-9000000000-a442bcaaacb6f4eec14dJSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-001r-9800000000-03bfaee5de56f72ed927JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0079-9200000000-26a075efe73adc63a189JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-059f-9000000000-a3281a79477ac14e2eaeJSpectraViewer | MoNA
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-0076-9000000000-ad60ea592282d09e4bd8JSpectraViewer | MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,1H] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
Concentrations
StatusValueReferenceDetails
Detected but not QuantifiedNot Applicable details
HMDB IDHMDB0000156
DrugBank IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB012047
KNApSAcK IDC00001192
Chemspider ID193317
KEGG Compound IDC00149
BioCyc IDMAL
BiGG ID34045
Wikipedia LinkMalic acid
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound222656
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID30797
References
Synthesis ReferenceMcKenzie, Alex.; Plenderleith, H. J.; Walker, Nellie. Optical activation of racemic acid by d-malic acid. Journal of the Chemical Society, Transactions (1923), 123 2875-80.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Sun HZ, Shi K, Wu XH, Xue MY, Wei ZH, Liu JX, Liu HY: Lactation-related metabolic mechanism investigated based on mammary gland metabolomics and 4 biofluids' metabolomics relationships in dairy cows. BMC Genomics. 2017 Dec 2;18(1):936. doi: 10.1186/s12864-017-4314-1. [PubMed:29197344 ]