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Record Information
Version1.0
Creation Date2016-09-30 22:20:09 UTC
Update Date2020-06-04 22:45:52 UTC
MCDB ID BMDB0000148
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • BMDB00148
Metabolite Identification
Common NameL-Glutamic acid
DescriptionL-Glutamic acid, also known as glutamate or acide glutamique, belongs to the class of organic compounds known as glutamic acid and derivatives. Glutamic acid and derivatives are compounds containing glutamic acid or a derivative thereof resulting from reaction of glutamic acid at the amino group or the carboxy group, or from the replacement of any hydrogen of glycine by a heteroatom. L-Glutamic acid exists as a solid, possibly soluble (in water), and a very strong basic compound (based on its pKa) molecule. L-Glutamic acid exists in all living species, ranging from bacteria to humans. L-Glutamic acid participates in a number of enzymatic reactions, within cattle. In particular, N5-Formyl-THF and L-glutamic acid can be converted into tetrahydrofolic acid and N-formyl-L-glutamic acid; which is mediated by the enzyme formimidoyltransferase-cyclodeaminase. In addition, Tetrahydrofolic acid and L-glutamic acid can be converted into tetrahydrofolyl-[glu](2); which is catalyzed by the enzyme folylpolyglutamate synthase. In cattle, L-glutamic acid is involved in the metabolic pathway called the folate metabolism pathway. L-Glutamic acid is a potentially toxic compound. L-Glutamic acid has been found to be associated with several diseases known as irritable bowel syndrome, periodontal disease, ulcerative colitis, and diverticular disease; also l-glutamic acid has been linked to the inborn metabolic disorders including rett syndrome.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
(S)-2-Aminopentanedioic acidChEBI
(S)-Glutamic acidChEBI
Acide glutamiqueChEBI
Acido glutamicoChEBI
Acidum glutamicumChEBI
EChEBI
GluChEBI
GlutamateChEBI
GLUTAMIC ACIDChEBI
L-GluChEBI
L-Glutaminic acidChEBI
L-GlutaminsaeureChEBI
(S)-2-AminopentanedioateGenerator
(S)-GlutamateGenerator
L-GlutaminateGenerator
L-GlutamateGenerator
(2S)-2-AminopentanedioateHMDB
(2S)-2-Aminopentanedioic acidHMDB
(S)-(+)-GlutamateHMDB
(S)-(+)-Glutamic acidHMDB
1-Amino-propane-1,3-dicarboxylateHMDB
1-Amino-propane-1,3-dicarboxylic acidHMDB
1-Aminopropane-1,3-dicarboxylateHMDB
1-Aminopropane-1,3-dicarboxylic acidHMDB
2-AminoglutarateHMDB
2-Aminoglutaric acidHMDB
2-AminopentanedioateHMDB
2-Aminopentanedioic acidHMDB
a-AminoglutarateHMDB
a-Aminoglutaric acidHMDB
a-GlutamateHMDB
a-Glutamic acidHMDB
AciglutHMDB
alpha-AminoglutarateHMDB
alpha-Aminoglutaric acidHMDB
alpha-GlutamateHMDB
alpha-Glutamic acidHMDB
AminoglutarateHMDB
Aminoglutaric acidHMDB
GltHMDB
GlusateHMDB
GlutHMDB
GlutacidHMDB
GlutamicolHMDB
GlutamidexHMDB
GlutaminateHMDB
Glutaminic acidHMDB
GlutaminolHMDB
GlutatonHMDB
L-(+)-GlutamateHMDB
L-(+)-Glutamic acidHMDB
L-a-AminoglutarateHMDB
L-a-Aminoglutaric acidHMDB
L-alpha-AminoglutarateHMDB
L-alpha-Aminoglutaric acidHMDB
D GlutamateHMDB
Glutamate, potassiumHMDB
Glutamic acid, (D)-isomerHMDB
L Glutamic acidHMDB
D-GlutamateHMDB
L GlutamateHMDB
Aluminum L glutamateHMDB
Aluminum L-glutamateHMDB
L-Glutamate, aluminumHMDB
Potassium glutamateHMDB
2-Acetamido-2-deoxy-D-glucoseHMDB
D-GlcNAcHMDB
N-Acetyl-D-glucosamineHMDB
N-AcetylchitosamineHMDB
N Acetyl D glucosamineHMDB
2 Acetamido 2 deoxy D glucoseHMDB
2 Acetamido 2 deoxyglucoseHMDB
2-Acetamido-2-deoxyglucoseHMDB
AcetylglucosamineHMDB
3alpha,7alpha,12alpha-Trihydroxy-5beta-cholan-24-oylglycineHMDB
N-[(3alpha,5beta,7alpha,12alpha)-3,7,12-Trihydroxy-24-oxocholan-24-yl]glycineHMDB
N-CholoylglycineHMDB
3a,7a,12a-Trihydroxy-5b-cholan-24-oylglycineHMDB
3Α,7α,12α-trihydroxy-5β-cholan-24-oylglycineHMDB
N-[(3a,5b,7a,12a)-3,7,12-Trihydroxy-24-oxocholan-24-yl]glycineHMDB
N-[(3Α,5β,7α,12α)-3,7,12-trihydroxy-24-oxocholan-24-yl]glycineHMDB
GlycocholateHMDB
Glycine cholateHMDB
Glycocholic acid, sodium saltHMDB
CholylglycineHMDB
Glycocholate sodiumHMDB
3alpha,7alpha,12alpha-Trihydroxy-5beta-cholanic acid-24-glycineHMDB
3alpha,7alpha,12alpha-Trihydroxy-N-(carboxymethyl)-5beta-cholan-24-amideHMDB
3Α,7α,12α-trihydroxy-5β-cholanic acid-24-glycineHMDB
3Α,7α,12α-trihydroxy-N-(carboxymethyl)-5β-cholan-24-amideHMDB
Glycoreductodehydrocholic acidHMDB
GlycylcholateHMDB
Glycylcholic acidHMDB
N-(Carboxymethyl)-3alpha,7alpha,12alpha-trihydroxy-5beta-cholan-24-amideHMDB
N-(Carboxymethyl)-3α,7α,12α-trihydroxy-5β-cholan-24-amideHMDB
N-Choloyl-glycineHMDB
3-Hydroxy-1,3,5(10)-estratrien-17-oneHMDB
Follicular hormoneHMDB
FolliculinHMDB
OestroneHMDB
(+)-EstroneHMDB
1,3,5(10)-Estratrien-3-ol-17-oneHMDB
3-Hydroxy-17-keto-estra-1,3,5-trieneHMDB
3-Hydroxyestra-1,3,5(10)-trien-17-oneHMDB
3-Hydroxyestra-1,3,5(10)-triene-17-oneHMDB
3-Hydroxyoestra-1,3,5(10)-trien-17-oneHMDB
D1,3,5(10)-Estratrien-3-ol-17-oneHMDB
Estrone, (+-)-isomerHMDB
Hyrex brand OF estroneHMDB
Estrone, (9 beta)-isomerHMDB
EstrovarinHMDB
KestroneHMDB
WehgenHMDB
Estrone, (8 alpha)-isomerHMDB
Hauck brand OF estroneHMDB
UnigenHMDB
Vortech brand OF estroneHMDB
alpha,beta-Hydroxypropionic acidHMDB
D-GroAHMDB
R-Glyceric acidHMDB
GlycerateHMDB
(R)-GlycerateHMDB
a,b-HydroxypropionateHMDB
a,b-Hydroxypropionic acidHMDB
alpha,beta-HydroxypropionateHMDB
Α,β-hydroxypropionateHMDB
Α,β-hydroxypropionic acidHMDB
R-GlycerateHMDB
(R)-Glyceric acidHMDB
D-GlycerateHMDB
D-Glyceric acidHMDB
(2R)-2,3-Dihydroxypropanoic acidHMDB
(R)-2,3-Dihydroxypropanoic acidHMDB
D-2,3-Dihydroxypropanoic acidHMDB
1-Amino-2-hydroxyethaneHMDB
2-Amino-1-ethanolHMDB
2-Amino-ethanolHMDB
2-Aminoethan-1-olHMDB
2-Aminoethyl alcoholHMDB
2-HydroxyethylamineHMDB
AethanolaminHMDB
AminoethanolHMDB
beta-AminoethanolHMDB
beta-Aminoethyl alcoholHMDB
beta-EthanolamineHMDB
beta-HydroxyethylamineHMDB
ColamineHMDB
ETAHMDB
GlycinolHMDB
HeaHMDB
MEAHMDB
MONOETHANOLAMINEHMDB
b-AminoethanolHMDB
Β-aminoethanolHMDB
b-Aminoethyl alcoholHMDB
Β-aminoethyl alcoholHMDB
b-EthanolamineHMDB
Β-ethanolamineHMDB
b-HydroxyethylamineHMDB
Β-hydroxyethylamineHMDB
2-AminoethanolHMDB
2-EthanolamineHMDB
2-HydroxyethanamineHMDB
Envision conditioner PDD 9020HMDB
EthylolamineHMDB
H-GlycinolHMDB
MonoaethanolaminHMDB
OlamineHMDB
2 AminoethanolHMDB
(3R,4S,5R)-5-[(1R)-1-Carboxy-2,2-difluoro-1-(phosphonooxy)ethoxy]-4-hydroxy-3-(phosphonooxy)cyclohex-1-ene-1-carboxylateHMDB
(1S)-2-[(3-O-b-D-Glucopyranosyl-b-D-galactopyranosyl)oxy]-1-{[(9E)-octadec-9-enoyloxy]methyl}ethyl (10E)-nonadec-10-enoateHMDB
(1S)-2-[(3-O-b-D-Glucopyranosyl-b-D-galactopyranosyl)oxy]-1-{[(9E)-octadec-9-enoyloxy]methyl}ethyl (10E)-nonadec-10-enoic acidHMDB
(1S)-2-[(3-O-beta-D-Glucopyranosyl-beta-D-galactopyranosyl)oxy]-1-{[(9E)-octadec-9-enoyloxy]methyl}ethyl (10E)-nonadec-10-enoic acidHMDB
(1S)-2-[(3-O-Β-D-glucopyranosyl-β-D-galactopyranosyl)oxy]-1-{[(9E)-octadec-9-enoyloxy]methyl}ethyl (10E)-nonadec-10-enoateHMDB
(1S)-2-[(3-O-Β-D-glucopyranosyl-β-D-galactopyranosyl)oxy]-1-{[(9E)-octadec-9-enoyloxy]methyl}ethyl (10E)-nonadec-10-enoic acidHMDB
Chemical FormulaC5H9NO4
Average Molecular Weight147.1293
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight147.053157781
IUPAC Name(2S)-2-aminopentanedioic acid
Traditional NameL-glutamic acid
CAS Registry Number56-86-0
SMILES
N[C@@H](CCC(O)=O)C(O)=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C5H9NO4/c6-3(5(9)10)1-2-4(7)8/h3H,1-2,6H2,(H,7,8)(H,9,10)/t3-/m0/s1
InChI KeyWHUUTDBJXJRKMK-VKHMYHEASA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as glutamic acid and derivatives. Glutamic acid and derivatives are compounds containing glutamic acid or a derivative thereof resulting from reaction of glutamic acid at the amino group or the carboxy group, or from the replacement of any hydrogen of glycine by a heteroatom.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassCarboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassAmino acids, peptides, and analogues
Direct ParentGlutamic acid and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Glutamic acid or derivatives
  • Alpha-amino acid
  • L-alpha-amino acid
  • Amino fatty acid
  • Dicarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Fatty acid
  • Fatty acyl
  • Amino acid
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Organic oxide
  • Primary amine
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Primary aliphatic amine
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Amine
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility8.57 mg/mLNot Available
LogP-3.69HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP-3.5ALOGPS
logP-3.2ChemAxon
logS-0.26ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)1.88ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.54ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count5ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area100.62 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count4ChemAxon
Refractivity31.29 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability13.32 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)splash10-0002-2950000000-2d6edc93ec5f8dee2223JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (Non-derivatized)splash10-002b-0940000000-4e285988bc537825d94dJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)splash10-00dj-9630000000-1ecc76aab86283892139JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (2 TMS)splash10-001i-8910000000-00f65ced0c55aa4ad169JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (3 TMS)splash10-0032-3980000000-3069de5b6c49e4176968JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0002-0790000000-79d3e289c22cb183faa1JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0002-2950000000-2d6edc93ec5f8dee2223JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-002b-0940000000-4e285988bc537825d94dJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-QQ (Non-derivatized)splash10-00ea-6932100000-30d3f5dcc198a5971e96JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-00dj-9630000000-1ecc76aab86283892139JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-001i-8910000000-00f65ced0c55aa4ad169JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-0032-3980000000-3069de5b6c49e4176968JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0znc-9300000000-f88e86b78a4cee99a2d4JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (2 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-00di-8290000000-f99e03763f636e557887JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-003r-6900000000-95b0a084dc076f9c7b91JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-001i-9000000000-c37d4c80a14ec029ef63JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0a59-9000000000-6f1888aa71bcb0adf76cJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-004j-0900000000-5fa8a338dcd2f2a6bdd2JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-004i-0900000000-16763200aa07f7629ad4JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-03di-3900000000-d9cfc5187aa799f6f978JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0a4i-0900000000-10ee9a593e13550bec1cJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0002-0900000000-4d045a3c1fc6e56f801bJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-001i-9000000000-c3c7f8f3754109a0c25bJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-004i-0900000000-48bfae26c69408b7f0aeJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0002-0900000000-82c2a681e7522a7bb1d1JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-0002-0905010000-af1c9ec4d0062fa6960eJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-01q9-9700000000-2b967b896a6e48914512JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-004i-0900000000-1434321646181ea894a0JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-00di-0900000000-11fadb2530828eedad8aJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-006t-0941100000-07d051890cb1d9e5c856JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-004i-9200000000-f8619d11f1f54d836bb1JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-004i-0900000000-ea2dd00e79ef06e8dc04JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-00di-0900000000-3e239d4014c95a2ef873JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Negativesplash10-0002-0900000000-b548959edce39d319cf4JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Negativesplash10-0udi-0900000000-40d901f655797db2cd0fJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Negativesplash10-0udi-1900000000-f997527a39900ac431c7JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Negativesplash10-0udi-7900000000-60816f0601a4e6d25ffbJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Negativesplash10-0007-9000000000-6ee821f657c604d1afcaJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Positivesplash10-000t-0900000000-7c02624abe56da9247a2JSpectraViewer | MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,1H] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
Concentrations
StatusValueReferenceDetails
Detected and Quantified44 - 693 uM details
Detected but not QuantifiedNot Applicable details
Detected but not QuantifiedNot Applicable details
Detected but not QuantifiedNot Applicable details
Detected and Quantified270 - 740 uM details
Detected and Quantified47577 uM details
Detected and Quantified47577 uM details
Detected and Quantified47577 uM details
Detected and Quantified47577 uM details
Detected and Quantified46217 uM details
Detected and Quantified46217 uM details
Detected and Quantified46217 uM details
Detected and Quantified259 +/- 10 uM details
Detected and Quantified263 +/- 15 uM details
Detected and Quantified260 +/- 23 uM details
Detected and Quantified271 +/- 21 uM details
Detected and Quantified297 +/- 8 uM details
Detected and Quantified260 +/- 11 uM details
Detected and Quantified303 +/- 9 uM details
Detected and Quantified257 +/- 25 uM details
Detected and Quantified189 +/- 77 uM details
Detected and Quantified191 +/- 68 uM details
Detected and Quantified196 +/- 64 uM details
HMDB IDHMDB0000148
DrugBank IDDB00142
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB012535
KNApSAcK IDC00001358
Chemspider IDNot Available
KEGG Compound IDC00025
BioCyc IDGLT
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkL-Glutamic_Acid
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound33032
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID16015
References
Synthesis ReferenceHorner, L.; Gross, A. Tertiary phosphines. IV. Use of phosphine imines in causing the introduction of primary amino groups. Liebigs Ann. Chem. (1955), 591 117-34.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Klein MS, Almstetter MF, Schlamberger G, Nurnberger N, Dettmer K, Oefner PJ, Meyer HH, Wiedemann S, Gronwald W: Nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry-based milk metabolomics in dairy cows during early and late lactation. J Dairy Sci. 2010 Apr;93(4):1539-50. doi: 10.3168/jds.2009-2563. [PubMed:20338431 ]
  2. Klein MS, Buttchereit N, Miemczyk SP, Immervoll AK, Louis C, Wiedemann S, Junge W, Thaller G, Oefner PJ, Gronwald W: NMR metabolomic analysis of dairy cows reveals milk glycerophosphocholine to phosphocholine ratio as prognostic biomarker for risk of ketosis. J Proteome Res. 2012 Feb 3;11(2):1373-81. doi: 10.1021/pr201017n. Epub 2011 Dec 9. [PubMed:22098372 ]
  3. Sundekilde UK, Gustavsson F, Poulsen NA, Glantz M, Paulsson M, Larsen LB, Bertram HC: Association between the bovine milk metabolome and rennet-induced coagulation properties of milk. J Dairy Sci. 2014 Oct;97(10):6076-84. doi: 10.3168/jds.2014-8304. Epub 2014 Jul 30. [PubMed:25087032 ]
  4. Buitenhuis AJ, Sundekilde UK, Poulsen NA, Bertram HC, Larsen LB, Sorensen P: Estimation of genetic parameters and detection of quantitative trait loci for metabolites in Danish Holstein milk. J Dairy Sci. 2013 May;96(5):3285-95. doi: 10.3168/jds.2012-5914. Epub 2013 Mar 15. [PubMed:23497994 ]
  5. Lu J, Antunes Fernandes E, Paez Cano AE, Vinitwatanakhun J, Boeren S, van Hooijdonk T, van Knegsel A, Vervoort J, Hettinga KA: Changes in milk proteome and metabolome associated with dry period length, energy balance, and lactation stage in postparturient dairy cows. J Proteome Res. 2013 Jul 5;12(7):3288-96. doi: 10.1021/pr4001306. Epub 2013 Jun 5. [PubMed:23738862 ]
  6. Mung D, Li L: Development of Chemical Isotope Labeling LC-MS for Milk Metabolomics: Comprehensive and Quantitative Profiling of the Amine/Phenol Submetabolome. Anal Chem. 2017 Apr 18;89(8):4435-4443. doi: 10.1021/acs.analchem.6b03737. Epub 2017 Mar 28. [PubMed:28306241 ]
  7. O'Callaghan TF, Vazquez-Fresno R, Serra-Cayuela A, Dong E, Mandal R, Hennessy D, McAuliffe S, Dillon P, Wishart DS, Stanton C, Ross RP: Pasture Feeding Changes the Bovine Rumen and Milk Metabolome. Metabolites. 2018 Apr 6;8(2). pii: metabo8020027. doi: 10.3390/metabo8020027. [PubMed:29642378 ]
  8. A. Foroutan et al. (2019). A. Foroutan et al. The Chemical Composition of Commercial Cow's Milk (in preparation). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry.
  9. Fooddata+, The Technical University of Denmark (DTU) [Link]