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Record Information
Version1.0
Creation Date2016-09-30 22:20:07 UTC
Update Date2020-06-04 21:05:04 UTC
MCDB ID BMDB0000143
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • BMDB00143
Metabolite Identification
Common NameD-Galactose
DescriptionD-Galactose, also known as alpha-D-gal or alpha D-galactose, belongs to the class of organic compounds known as hexoses. These are monosaccharides in which the sugar unit is a is a six-carbon containing moeity. D-Galactose exists as a solid, possibly soluble (in water), and an extremely weak basic (essentially neutral) compound (based on its pKa) molecule. D-Galactose exists in all living species, ranging from bacteria to humans. D-Galactose participates in a number of enzymatic reactions, within cattle. In particular, D-Galactose and sorbitol can be converted into melibiitol through its interaction with the enzyme Alpha-galactosidase a. In addition, D-Galactose and D-mannose can be converted into epimelibiose through its interaction with the enzyme Alpha-galactosidase a. In cattle, D-galactose is involved in the metabolic pathway called the galactose metabolism pathway. D-Galactose is a potentially toxic compound. D-Galactose has been found to be associated with several diseases known as eosinophilic esophagitis, patent ductus venosus, and colorectal cancer; also d-galactose has been linked to several inborn metabolic disorders including galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase deficiency and galactosemia type 1.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
ALPHA D-GALACTOSEChEBI
alpha-D-GalChEBI
Gal-alphaChEBI
alpha-D-GalactoseKegg
a D-GALACTOSEGenerator
Α D-galactoseGenerator
a-D-GalGenerator
Α-D-galGenerator
Gal-aGenerator
Gal-αGenerator
a-D-GalactoseGenerator
Α-D-galactoseGenerator
(+)-GalactoseHMDB
5AbpHMDB
8AbpHMDB
alpha-D-GalactopyranoseHMDB
D-(+)-GalactoseHMDB
D-HexoseHMDB
GALHMDB
GalactoseHMDB
Galactose (NF)HMDB
GLAHMDB
GLCHMDB
HexoseHMDB
SHU 508 aMeSH, HMDB
SH-TA-508MeSH, HMDB
SHU 508MeSH, HMDB
LevovistMeSH, HMDB
SHU-508MeSH, HMDB
Chemical FormulaC6H12O6
Average Molecular Weight180.1559
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight180.063388116
IUPAC Name(2S,3R,4S,5R,6R)-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxane-2,3,4,5-tetrol
Traditional Namegalactose
CAS Registry Number59-23-4
SMILES
OC[C@H]1O[C@H](O)[C@H](O)[C@@H](O)[C@H]1O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C6H12O6/c7-1-2-3(8)4(9)5(10)6(11)12-2/h2-11H,1H2/t2-,3+,4+,5-,6+/m1/s1
InChI KeyWQZGKKKJIJFFOK-PHYPRBDBSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as hexoses. These are monosaccharides in which the sugar unit is a is a six-carbon containing moeity.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic oxygen compounds
ClassOrganooxygen compounds
Sub ClassCarbohydrates and carbohydrate conjugates
Direct ParentHexoses
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Hexose monosaccharide
  • Oxane
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Hemiacetal
  • Oxacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Polyol
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary alcohol
  • Alcohol
  • Aliphatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point170 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility683 mg/mLNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP-2.6ALOGPS
logP-2.9ChemAxon
logS0.64ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)11.3ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-3ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count6ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count5ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area110.38 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count1ChemAxon
Refractivity35.92 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability16.13 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-066s-0941000000-8f1b68655e0a5ed179e3JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0ldj-0941000000-84c771fab416aa0a40d8JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0ktb-0931000000-6f37a774d1ab64585c8dJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-066s-0931000000-9945093085ef7b0de618JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0ldj-0931000000-1ed532d5d2897be775dfJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-00di-9731000000-af5bd67ad0bbb2997839JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-00di-9621000000-9dad5bd1760a891ace2aJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0fr2-0920000000-d0bbaf502997c43971baJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0fr2-1920000000-f47f0b66263744db15baJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-066s-0941000000-8f1b68655e0a5ed179e3JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0ldj-0941000000-84c771fab416aa0a40d8JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0ktb-0931000000-6f37a774d1ab64585c8dJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-066s-0931000000-9945093085ef7b0de618JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0ldj-0931000000-1ed532d5d2897be775dfJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-00di-9731000000-af5bd67ad0bbb2997839JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-00di-9621000000-9dad5bd1760a891ace2aJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0fr2-0920000000-d0bbaf502997c43971baJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0fr2-1920000000-f47f0b66263744db15baJSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0np0-9700000000-e8d638dc817e46b97d7bJSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (5 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-004i-6122690000-eaf6f7adf34ccd0c667bJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0f6t-0900000000-70d3989fddd34b894c77JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-00ri-9700000000-d454170b4e3ed18ed2d9JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-007a-9300000000-81f5f12f84924a34e2c0JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-01q9-0900000000-b0bc47623e7b2ca31c02JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-03ea-3900000000-648e1637af29cf2a3518JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0007-9200000000-9e6f46a1cbf52d6e347aJSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-004i-2900000000-a4ec4f0b1e29e360a952JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-01t9-6900000000-7b3ea9c64ecc8d4ac867JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-052f-9100000000-ec2bf4918640a0a36398JSpectraViewer | MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,1H] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
Concentrations
StatusValueReferenceDetails
Detected and Quantified443 uM details
Detected and Quantified67719 +/- 8881 uM details
Detected and Quantified500 - 1700 uM details
Detected but not QuantifiedNot Applicable
  • Kurt J. Boudonck,...
details
Detected but not QuantifiedNot Applicable details
Detected but not QuantifiedNot Applicable details
Detected and Quantified1200 - 1760 uM details
Detected but not QuantifiedNot Applicable
  • Kurt J. Boudonck,...
details
Detected and Quantified300 +/- 18 uM details
Detected and Quantified334 +/- 15 uM details
Detected and Quantified318 +/- 19 uM details
Detected and Quantified310 +/- 39 uM details
Detected and Quantified902 +/- 624 uM details
Detected and Quantified1023 +/- 937 uM details
Detected and Quantified730 +/- 278 uM details
Detected and Quantified416 (216-494) uM
  • Esperanza Troyano...
details
Detected and Quantified190-260 uM
  • Faulkner, A., Cha...
details
Detected and Quantified932 +/- 68 uM
  • RAJAN SHARMA YUDH...
details
Detected and Quantified224 +/- 5 uM
  • Tommaso R.I. Cata...
details
Detected and Quantified310 +/- 39 uM details
Detected and Quantified300 +/- 18 uM details
Detected and Quantified334 +/- 15 uM details
Detected and Quantified318 +/- 19 uM details
HMDB IDHMDB0000143
DrugBank IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB021787
KNApSAcK IDC00001119
Chemspider IDNot Available
KEGG Compound IDC00984
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkGalactose
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound439357
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID28061
References
Synthesis ReferenceAvigad, Gad. Synthesis of D-galactose-6-t and D-galactosides-6-t. Carbohydrate Research (1967), 3(4), 430-4.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Faulkner A, Pollock HT: Changes in the concentration of metabolites in milk from cows fed on diets supplemented with soyabean oil or fatty acids. J Dairy Res. 1989 May;56(2):179-83. [PubMed:2760296 ]
  2. Nakamura T, Kawase H, Kimura K, Watanabe Y, Ohtani M, Arai I, Urashima T: Concentrations of sialyloligosaccharides in bovine colostrum and milk during the prepartum and early lactation. J Dairy Sci. 2003 Apr;86(4):1315-20. doi: 10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(03)73715-1. [PubMed:12741556 ]
  3. Klein MS, Almstetter MF, Schlamberger G, Nurnberger N, Dettmer K, Oefner PJ, Meyer HH, Wiedemann S, Gronwald W: Nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry-based milk metabolomics in dairy cows during early and late lactation. J Dairy Sci. 2010 Apr;93(4):1539-50. doi: 10.3168/jds.2009-2563. [PubMed:20338431 ]
  4. Buitenhuis AJ, Sundekilde UK, Poulsen NA, Bertram HC, Larsen LB, Sorensen P: Estimation of genetic parameters and detection of quantitative trait loci for metabolites in Danish Holstein milk. J Dairy Sci. 2013 May;96(5):3285-95. doi: 10.3168/jds.2012-5914. Epub 2013 Mar 15. [PubMed:23497994 ]
  5. Scano P, Murgia A, Pirisi FM, Caboni P: A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-based metabolomic approach for the characterization of goat milk compared with cow milk. J Dairy Sci. 2014 Oct;97(10):6057-66. doi: 10.3168/jds.2014-8247. Epub 2014 Aug 6. [PubMed:25108860 ]
  6. O'Callaghan TF, Vazquez-Fresno R, Serra-Cayuela A, Dong E, Mandal R, Hennessy D, McAuliffe S, Dillon P, Wishart DS, Stanton C, Ross RP: Pasture Feeding Changes the Bovine Rumen and Milk Metabolome. Metabolites. 2018 Apr 6;8(2). pii: metabo8020027. doi: 10.3390/metabo8020027. [PubMed:29642378 ]
  7. Kurt J. Boudonck, Matthew W. Mitchell, Jacob Wulff and John A. Ryals (2009). Kurt J. Boudonck, Matthew W. Mitchell, Jacob Wulff and John A. Ryals. Characterization of the biochemical variability of bovine milk using metabolomics. Metabolomics (2009) 5:375?386. Metabolomics.
  8. A. Foroutan et al. (2019). A. Foroutan et al. The Chemical Composition of Commercial Cow's Milk (in preparation). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry.